Virologists study viral microscopic organisms that cause diseases. They attempt to create new vaccines and medicines that will help cure these diseases and provide immunity to human beings.
Viruses have plagued human beings since the beginning of history. Some, more lethal than others, such as chickenpox, Ebola, AIDS, hepatitis, and influenza (the flu) are viruses that both human beings and virologists have been struggling with.
Virologists study how viruses are able to replicate in animal, plant and bacterial cells. To replicate, viruses take over the host cells on which they are parasites. The viral parasite causes changes in the cell, directing the host cell’s metabolism to produce new virus particles. Viruses come in two basic types, having a genome of either DNA or RNA. Accordingly, viruses infect all major groups of organisms including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria.
Many people mistakenly believe that drugs such as antibiotics, help to combat viruses. Nevertheless, there are many preventative vaccinations now available to people, such as the hepatitis B vaccine or typhus shots. These vaccines are designed to immunise people against the infections. Those travelling to foreign regions where they are at risk due to various viral epidemics, are advised to get inoculated with region-specific vaccines to prevent being infected by a lethal virus.
The most common types of viruses are the “cold viruses” of which there are about 130 different types. Usually these infections are not very serious and may just cause a runny nose and malaise for a couple of days. Viruses are spread by contact with infected individuals. The usual method of transmission is person-to-person contact through mucus or blood secretions. Some types of virus can be transmitted through the air. In addition, drug users who share needles can easily become infected if the needle is contaminated with AIDS or hepatitis.
Virologists who work on researching dangerous organisms such as Ebola or AIDS, must take special safety precautions, such as wearing protective suits and working in biohazard areas, access to which is restricted to these scientists only. They usually work in teams with other microbiologists such as parasitologists, immunologists and bacteriologists, performing interdisciplinary research studies. Some may also work as medical doctors, treating patients with viral infections.
A virologist’s work seems to be never ending, as new viruses continually emerge. The career can be very rewarding since virologists make discoveries that help cure our deadliest scourges. There is a great deal of research being conducted on new treatments, improved diagnostics and vaccines.
Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, University of Dar Es Salaam, University of Johannesburg, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch