The surgeon is a doctor who specializes in performing surgery to prevent the spread of disease, to correct deformities, to repair injuries and to improve body functions. Patients are referred to a surgeon by general practitioners (medical doctors) and specialists.
Surgeons diagnose bodily disorders and orthopaedic conditions and provide treatments, such as medicines and surgeries, in clinics, hospital wards and operating rooms. They operate on patients to correct deformities, repair injuries, prevent and treat diseases or improve or restore patients' functions.
The surgeon examines each patient thoroughly to obtain information on their medical condition and the surgical risk, reviews the medical history, medication allergies, physical condition and examination results to verify the operation's necessity and to determine the best procedure. They usually consult with other doctors to be certain that an operation is necessary. The procedure is explained to the patient and/or the family. They prescribe preoperative and postoperative treatments and procedures, such as sedatives, diets, antibiotics and preparation and treatment of the patient's operative area. They direct and coordinate the activities of nurses, assistants, specialists, residents and other medical staff.
Before surgery, the surgeon checks the equipment, instruments and surgical setup to be sure everything needed is present and sterile. After surgery the patient’s condition is monitored until they have completely recovered from the operation. They prepare case histories and keep records of all patients.
Surgeons provide consultation and surgical assistance to other physicians and surgeons, and refer the patient to other medical specialists or practitioners when necessary. They need to manage surgery services, including planning, scheduling and coordination, determination of procedures, and procurement of supplies and equipment.
Surgeons also conduct research to develop and test surgical techniques that can improve operating procedures and outcomes.
Surgeons work indoors in consulting rooms, in hospitals and in operating rooms that must be sterile and temperature-controlled. At times they may visit patients in their wards or in recovery rooms. In addition, some surgeons may lecture at universities.