Geologists study the structure, composition and history of the earth's crust. Geological engineers apply their knowledge of geological principles to the planning, designing, construction, operation and safety of civil and structural engineering projects.
Geological engineers examine the types and geological structures of soils at construction sites and ensure that large structures such as high buildings, dams, roads, or new townships are designed to suit the soil conditions or strength of the rock. They ensure the firm and safe construction of the foundations in the most cost-effective way. They also examine the materials used in the construction of roads. Geological engineers work most closely with civil engineers.
Geological engineers conduct studies to analyse geological and geotechnical conditions, and they plan, develop and coordinate programmes of geotechnical, geological, geophysical or geohydrological data acquisition, analysis and mapping to assist in the development of civil engineering, mining, petroleum and waste management projects, or for regional development. They analyse and prepare recommendations and reports for the construction of, or improvements to, the foundations of civil engineering projects, such as rock excavation, pressure grouting, rock slope stabilisation and hydraulic channel erosion control. They conduct theoretical and applied studies of groundwater flow and contamination, and they develop specifications for site selection, treatment and construction.
They also plan, develop, coordinate and conduct theoretical and experimental studies in mining exploration, evaluation and feasibility studies with regard to the mining industry. They conduct surveys and studies of ore deposits, ore reserve calculations and mine design. They design, develop and implement computer applications for geophysics, geochemistry, geology, mapping and related fields, and they supervise technologists, technicians and other engineers and scientists.