Almost every firm, government department, and organization has one or more financial managers who oversee the preparation of financial reports, direct investment activities, and implement cash management strategies.
Financial managers are usually appointed as heads of the financial divisions of companies. The financial division is responsible for recording, analysing and interpreting financial data. Financial reports are then made available to the relevant people, for example the managing director, the bank manager and the shareholders of the company. The financial division also compiles the annual and other budgets. In addition, this division is responsible for the completion and submission of company tax returns.
The financial division can provide important information on a company’s performance. The financial manager sets the cost-standards for the company and regularly checks the actual performance of the company against these standards. As computers are increasingly used to record and organise data, many financial managers are spending more time developing strategies and implementing the long-term goals of their organisation.
The duties of financial managers vary with the level of their seniority. For example, the top financial executives of an organisation oversee all financial and accounting functions and formulate and administer the organisation’s overall financial plans and policies. In small firms, financial managers usually handle all the financial management functions, while in large firms, they direct these activities through other financial managers, each heading up different financial sections, which may include:
Financial control: This section is responsible for the preparation of financial reports that summarise and forecast the organisation’s financial position, such as income statements, balance sheets, and analysis of future earnings or expenses; also for the preparation of special reports required by regulatory authorities. This section may also oversee the accounting, audit, and budget departments.
Treasurer: This section directs and implements the organisation’s financial goals, objectives and budgets. They oversee the investment of funds and manage associated risks, supervise cash management activities, execute capital-raising strategies to support a firm’s expansion, and deal with mergers and acquisitions.
Cash flow: Here the flow of cash receipts and disbursements are monitored and controlled to meet the business and investment needs of the firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine whether loans must be obtained to meet cash requirements or whether surplus cash should be invested in interest-bearing instruments.
Risk and insurance: These managers oversee programmes to minimise risks and losses that may arise from the financial transactions and business operations undertaken by the institution. They also manage the organisation’s insurance budget.
Credit managers:They oversee the firm’s issuance of credit. They establish credit rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor the collection of past overdue accounts. Managers specialising in international finance develop financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multinational organisations.
Investment managers carry out functions closely related to those of financial managers and these positions are often combined. Investment managers determine the best means of investing material and financial resources. They consider the risk of the use of various investment media such as shares, property, deposits, jewellery, diamonds, gold coins, paintings and international currencies.
Computers play an important role in the work of financial and investment managers. These managers have a good deal of administrative work, which includes work with properties, shares, transfers and debentures. Larger firms employ company secretaries and/or transfer secretaries to do the administrative work, but in smaller firms the financial and investment manager is also responsible for this. They may also be required to make calculations, prepare reports, attend meetings, write letters, and accumulate and file records.
Abm University College, Academic City College, Accra, Accra Polytechnic, Adventist University of Central Africa, Alliance International University, Almond Institute(formerly Graduate School of Governance and Leadership), Archbishop James University College, BA ISAGO University College, Bimaks College of Business and Health Sciences, Bindura University of Science Education, Bluecrest College (formerly Niit Ghana College), Boston City Campus and Business College, Botho University, Botswana Accountancy College, Botswana College of Distance and Open Learning, Catholic Institute of Business and Technology, Catholic Institute of Kabgayi, Catholic University College of Ghana, Cavendish University, Christian Service University College, Coastal KZN TVET College, Damelin, DMI-St.Eugene University, Dominion University College, Durban University of Technology , Egerton University, Ekurhuleni West TVET College, Evangelical Presbyterian University College, Fountainhead Christian College, Garden City University College, Ghana Baptist University College, Ghana Christian University College, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana Technology University College, Gideon Roberts University, Great Zimbabwe University, Helderberg College NPC, Heritage Christian College, ICESA City Campus, Institute of Applied Sciences, Institute of Bankers Namibia (IOB), Institute of Development Management, International School of Business and Technology (Isbat), International Training College ? Lingua (ITCL), International University of Management, Islamic University in Uganda, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (Tanzania), KAAF University College, Kampala Institute of Vocational Training and Business Studies, Kenneth Kaunda Metropolitan University, Kenya Methodist University, Kenyatta University, Kepler Kigali, Kibabii University, Kigali Independent University, Kirinyaga University College, Knutsford University College, Koforidua Polytechnic, Kumasi Polytechnic, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kyambogo University, Limkokwing University of Creative Technology, Livingston International University of Tourism, Lyceum College, Machakos University College, Management College of Southern Africa (MANCOSA), Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Mega Size College, Meritorious Biz Tech College, Methodist University College Ghana, Milpark Education, Moi University, Monash South Africa, Mount Kenya University, Multitech Business School, Mulungushi University, Mzumbe University, Namibia University of Science and Technology, National University of Lesotho, National University of Science & Technology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Nile Institute of Management Studies Arua, North-West University, Nsaka University, Open University of Tanzania, Pearson Institute of Higher Education, Pentecost University College, Production Management Institute of Southern Africa, Regenesys Management, Regent Business School, Regent University College of Science & Technology, Rusangu University, Sol Plaatjies University, Solusi University, St. Augustine University of Tanzania, Stefano Moshi Memorial University College, Strathmore University, Sylvia University, Team University, Technical University of Kenya, Technical University of Mombasa, The Copperbelt University, Tom Mboya University College, Trinity University, Triumphant College, Tshwane North TVET College, Tumaini University Makumira, Uganda Catholic Management and Training Institute, Uganda Martyrs University, Uganda Technology and Management University, United States International University, Université des Mascareignes, University for Development Studies, University of Botswana, University of Cape Coast, University of Cape Town, University of Dar Es Salaam, University of Eastern Africa Baraton, University of Education Winneba, University of Eldoret, University of Fort Hare, University of Johannesburg, University of Kigali, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Limpopo, University of Lusaka, University of Mauritius, University of Namibia, University of Pretoria, University of Professional Studies (Upsa), University of Rwanda, University of South Africa, University of Stellenbosch, University of Swaziland, University of Technology and Arts of Byumba, University of Technology Mauritius, University of the Free State, University of the Western Cape, University of the Witwatersrand, University of Zambia, University of Zululand, Valley University of Science and Technology, Valley View University, Victoria University, Walter Sisulu University, Web-Info-Net Institute of Technology, YMCA Comprehensive Institute, Zambia Catholic University, Zenith University College, Zimbabwe Open University