Farming covers the production of almost all kinds of animals, crops, fruits and vegetables suitable for a moderate to subtropical climate. Farmers are responsible for most of the production of a country's foodstuffs either through crop or stock farming. Another important responsibility of farmers is the conservation of the country's natural resources.

Farmers combine agricultural and business methods in operating small or large farms. Farmers’ objectives are to make farming activities productive, profitable and professional.

The nature of the work differs according to the size and type of farm. The topography, climate and vegetation of an area determine the type of farming practised. On small farms, farmers may perform the actual labour, as well as plan and direct farming operations.

With crop farming, farmers perform a wide range of duties, such as determining land use, planting, fertilising, spraying, cultivating and harvesting procedures as well as marketing.

On livestock farms, farmers take care of animals. The correct breeding or incubation programme as well as feeding programmes, need to be followed. Pastures have to be planned and controlled in such a way that enough grazing will be available for the animals. Animals must also be vaccinated against illnesses. Wool, meat and dairy products need to be processed and marketed.

Farmers are also employers. The number of labourers each farmer employs is in direct proportion to the size and profitability of the farm and the degree of mechanisation. Farmers need to be well informed on all legislation that regulates labour relations in agriculture.

Farmers evaluate existing practices and look at methods for improvements. They maintain financial records, purchase supplies, determine labour needs and hire and supervise workers.


  • large farming corporations

  • owners of large farms

  • Department of Agriculture

  • Department of Health

  • Department of Land Affairs

  • universities, universities of technology and agricultural colleges

  • self-employment, with own farm

Getting Started

  • try to obtain vacation work as a farm-hand

  • grow vegetables in your own garden

  • keep and care for pets

  • arrange to visit different farms and speak to farmers about this type of career


Africa University, Alliance International University, Anglican University College of Technology, Bindura University of Science Education, Boland TVET College, Botswana College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Busoga University, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Central University of Technology, Centre for Training and Projects Development (CTPD), Chinhoyi University of Technology, Chuka University, Coastal KZN TVET College, College of Intergrated Healthcare, Egerton University, Ehlanzeni TVET College, Esayidi TVET College, Ghana Christian University College, Gideon Roberts University, Great Zimbabwe University, Gulu University, Human Technical and Business College Lira, Ibanda University, Integrated Polytechnic Regional Centre (South), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (Tanzania), Kabale University, Karatina University, Kenya Methodist University, Kenyatta University, King Hintsa TVET College, Kisii University, Kumasi Polytechnic, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kyambogo University, Letaba TVET College, Lovedale Public TVET College, Maasai Mara University, Majuba TVET College, Maluti TVET College, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Maseno University, Mauritius Institute of Training and Development, Meru University of Science and Technology, Methodist University College Ghana, Moi University, Mulungushi University, Namibia University of Science and Technology, National University of Lesotho, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Nkumba University, North-West University, Nsaka University, Presbyterian University College, Pwani University College, Rongo University College, Rusangu University, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Solusi University, South West Gauteng TVET College, Tshwane University of Technology, Uganda Catholic Management and Training Institute, Uganda Martyrs University, Umfolozi TVET College, University for Development Studies, University of Cape Coast, University of Dar Es Salaam, University of Eastern Africa Baraton, University of Eldoret, University of Energy and Natural Resources, University of Ghana, University of Kabianga, University of Kisubi, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Mauritius, University of Mpumalanga, University of Namibia, University of Rwanda, University of Stellenbosch, University of Swaziland, University of Technology and Arts of Byumba, University of the Free State, University of Zambia, Valley University of Science and Technology, Vuselela TVET College, Walter Sisulu University, Waterberg TVET College, Western TVET College, Zimbabwe Open University

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