Chemists examine the composition, structure and properties of different materials, as well as the processes and changes they undergo. They work in research and development, as well as production and inspection.

In the research and development field, the properties, the composition of matter and the laws that govern the combination of elements are investigated. Chemists use research findings to help create or improve products. They analyse organic or inorganic compounds to determine their chemical or physical properties, composition, structure, relationships or reactions, using chromatography, spectroscopy or spectrophotometry techniques. They induce changes in the composition of substances by introducing heat, light, energy or chemical catalysts for quantitative or qualitative analysis.

They maintain the laboratory instruments to ensure proper working order and troubleshoot malfunctions when needed.  For this, they compile and analyse test information to determine process or equipment operating efficiency or to diagnose malfunction.  They develop, improve or customise products, equipment, formulas, processes or analytical methods.

Chemists conduct quality-control tests and prepare test solutions, compounds or reagents for laboratory personnel to conduct steps.  They write technical papers or reports or prepare standards and specifications for processes, facilities, products or tests, and confer with scientists or engineers to conduct analyses of research projects, interpret test results or develop non-standard tests.

They are instrumental in the development of new products, for instance, paint or drug products. In the fields of production and inspection, instructions are prepared for plant workers, specifying the kind and quantity of ingredients to use and the mixing time for each stage in the process. In the inspection area, chemists test samples to make certain that industry and government standards are met. They study the effects of various methods of processing, preserving or packaging on the composition or properties of foods.

Chemists may specialise in one or more of the following disciplines: organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and theoretical chemistry, as well as biochemistry and industrial chemistry. Some chemists work as teachers and lecturers while others are consultants or technical journalists.

Most work in modern, well-equipped laboratories or classrooms.  However, the actual work setting depends on the type, size, location and financial resources of the employer.  Safety regulations have to be observed to avoid injury from highly explosive or caustic chemicals.


  • chemical or other manufacturing industries

  • educational institutions

  • research institutes

  • SABS


  • Council for Mineral Technology

  • Sasol, AECI

  • CSIR

  • government departments

  • self-employment, as a consultant

Getting Started

  • take courses where laboratory experience can be obtained

  • arrange to speak to chemists and visit laboratories and chemical plants


Baldwin College, Bimaks College of Business and Health Sciences, Bindura University of Science Education, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Busitema University, Chinhoyi University of Technology, College of Intergrated Healthcare, Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Egerton University, Garden City University College, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenyatta University, Kirinyaga University College, Kisii University, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kyambogo University, Laikipia University, Makerere University, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Moi University, Mukuba University, Multimedia University of Kenya, National University of Lesotho, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, North-West University, Pwani University College, Rongo University College, Rusangu University, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, South Eastern Kenya University, The Copperbelt University, University for Development Studies, University of Cape Coast, University of Cape Town, University of Eastern Africa Baraton, University of Eldoret, University of Ghana, University of Health and Allied Science, University of Johannesburg, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Malawi (Chancellor College), University of Malawi (The Polytechnic), University of Mauritius, University of Nairobi, University of Namibia, University of Pretoria, University of Rwanda, University of Stellenbosch, University of Swaziland, University of the Free State, University of the Western Cape, University of the Witwatersrand, University of Zambia