Oceanographers study the sea and all its different facets, such as the sea floor, marine life, ocean currents, the physical and chemical composition of the water and also the air above the ocean. The entire field, including the deep ocean and the continental shelf regions, as well as the shore with its dunes and the tidal rivers, fall within the sphere of activity of oceanographers.
Oceanographers carry out geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys, as well as research into the dynamics of ocean currents, the interaction between wind and waves, and temperature and humidity on the water surface.
The five branches of oceanography are:
Marine Biology: this involves all aspects of plant and animal life in the sea. Marine biologists study the occurrence, distribution and development of plants and animals and how they are influenced by environmental factors.
Physical Oceanography: physical oceanographers study the physical properties of water such as temperature, salt content and density and phenomena such as currents, waves and shores. They also study the interaction between the sea and the air above it and how this influences the weather and climate.
Marine Geoscience: Geological oceanographers are concerned with the processes involved in the formation of the sea floor and coastline, underwater land formation and physical composition of the ocean floor, and current processes of erosion, sedimentation and silting.
Marine Chemistry: Chemical oceanographers study the chemical composition of seawater and the effect of chemicals on the marine environment. Pollution of seawater offers new challenges to chemical oceanographers to determine the influence of that pollution on the quality of the water.
Coastal and Ocean Engineering: This is the application of engineering techniques to the coastal zone. It is essentially a branch of civil engineering that interfaces with the marine sciences. It involves the development and maintenance of harbours, coastal recreational facilities, inlet pipes for seawater, effluent outfalls and the general management of the coastal zone.
Oceanographers also work in laboratories on land, but, by the very nature of their work, they periodically work on a research ship or smaller boat. The development of underwater respiratory apparatus, specialised diving equipment, research submarines and deep-sea vehicles makes it possible for the oceanographers to stay under water for long periods and do research on marine life. The final component of the work is the computer processing of the data collected, with the aid of modern equipment. Oceanographic technicians support oceanographers in their research projects and in the laboratories.