Air traffic controllers direct the safe and orderly movement of aircraft while they are flying, landing, taking off and taxiing. The most important aspect of air traffic controllers’ work is to keep airport traffic flowing smoothly, safely and efficiently. They provide pilots with instructions based on information received from equipment (such as radar), other controllers, the weather bureau, other airline pilots and other sources.
Air traffic controllers: receive information about flights from flight plans, pilot reports, radar and observations; direct aircraft to manage aircraft traffic flows so that accidents are avoided; advise pilots on weather conditions, the status of facilities, airports and other services; give pilots permission to take off, land and change altitude and direction; give airport workers permission to move around on the tarmac and runway; monitor aircraft in the air on a radar and look for possible conflicts; check equipment used for navigation; communicate by telephone, radio and satellite communication systems with pilots, air traffic controllers and other airport professionals; alert airport fire crew and rescue services in cases of emergency; and write reports on incidents.
In airport control, air traffic controllers are concerned with all aircraft moving on the surface of the airport and all aircraft taking off and landing during good weather conditions. In approach control, air traffic controllers give instructions, particularly during bad weather conditions, to incoming aircraft until the runway is in sight and to departing aircraft until level flight is reached. In airway control, instructions to pilots ensure that safe distances between aircraft are maintained.
Air traffic controllers need to know about flight planning, weather, navigation and aircraft performance. They also need to know civil aviation laws, safety rules, emergency procedures, technical flying terms and the different methods used to separate aircraft in the air.
Equipment used by air traffic controllers includes: radar screens; electronic equipment; computers; radios and telephones to contact pilots and other airport staff. Experience as a pilot can be very helpful for air traffic controllers, as can aviation and navigation experience. Air traffic controllers spend a lot of time dealing with pilots and other air traffic controllers, so any work involving people is useful.